Pemerintahan Desa

IMPLIKASI UU NO. 6 TAHUN 2014 TENTANG DESA TERHADAP PENYELENGGARAAN PEMERINTAHAN DESA

Kushandajani – Departemen Politik dan Pemerintahan – FISIP – UNDIP

The existence of Law No. 6 of 2014 on Village has constructed the management of village governance, where the central government consider village as autonomous region. On the one hand, the central government accommodate the management of village government through principle of recognition, subsidiarity, diversity, unity, mutual assistance (gotong royong), kinship, deliberation, democracy, independent, participation, equality, empowerment and sustainability. Does the legal construction has implication on the social meaning of village governance? The focus of this study is to analyze changes in the meaning and reality of the implementation of the village governance, and the relation between the authority of the village and the village government structure. Qualitative method was selected, and perspective of emic was used. Data collection prioritize the use of first hand data, which were obtained from several informants through in-depth interview and focus group discussion (FGD). The results of this study show several important issues. First, four areas of village authorities, namely managing village governance, implementation of rural development, coaching rural community, and empowerment of rural community, relate to each other, where the field of development, social and community empowerment, are interpreted as a way of governing. Second, the spirit of village governance is in the local value; that is mutual assistance (gotong royong). The head of village is considered successful in running the village governance if he succeeded in building the spirit of mutual assistance of rural communities. Third, the village government managed to adapt to such change, resulting organizational structure of village government that accommodate traditional structure as well as modern organizational structure, as constructed by the State under Law No. 6 of 2014 on Village.

Keywords: village governance, village government functions, organizational structure of village government

Bisa diakses pada http://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.ph/index?journalsPage=2#journals

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Gender

Gender and Village Governance Transformation in Indonesia: An Initial Assessment
Laila Kholid Alfirdaus
Diponegoro University
Kushandajani
Diponegoro University
Bulan Prabawani
Diponegoro University
Abstract
Since the passing of the new Village Law in 2014, scholarly concern for village studies in Indonesia has grown. However, studies focusing on gender equality in the law’s implementation are still uncommon. This article discusses how village governments address gender problems in their territory. Based on field research in two villages in Java, namely Panggungharjo and Lerep, this article recognizes that there has been greater attention on gender issues since the implementation of the Village Law. More women are recruited as members of village government administrations, and village governments also actively involve women in village decision making processes as well as the dissemination of information on policy. Issues related to women have also received greater financial support. However, village heads still dominate village policy making , and though gender issues have gained some support they are still considered secondary among village development priorities. Furthermore, empowerment programs that directly improve gender equality have been lacking. Although maternal and children health and early child education programs are common in villages , little has been done to protect women against domestic violence or defend women (migrant) workers. There is thus a crucial need for the national government to issue regulations that will encourage the stronger assertion of gender equality in village law implementation.
Keywords: Gender Equality, Village Law, Village GovernanceTransformation
Fulltext bisa diakses di http://iif.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/02-Alfirdaus-Laila-Kholid-Gender-and-Village-Governance-Transformation.pdf
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Gotong Royong

ICONEG 2016 International Conference on Ethics in Governance: Intersecting Law, Religion and Politics,  19-20th December 2016, Makassar, Indonesia

Managing Village Governance Based on Mutual Assistance (Gotong Royong)

Kushandajani dan Puji Astuti

Department of Politics and Government Science

Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Diponegoro University

Semarang, Indonesia

abstract—Law No. 6 of 2014 on Village constructs village authority in four areas: managing village governance, implementation of rural development, coaching rural community, and empowerment of rural community. Those are the basis of village governance, including the organizational structure of the village government. On the other hand, during this time, the government and villagers basically interpret the administration of the village is based on values prevailing in the local village. Then, how does the village government respond to the changes since the enactment of Law No. 6 of 2014 on Village? The answer to the question become the focus of this study. Qualitative research method was chosen, by using perspective of emic. Data collection techniques prioritized the use of first hand data, which were obtained from several informants through in-depth interviews and focused group discussion (FGD).

The result of this study shows that managing village governance is a concept that is integrated and could not be separated from other functions, namely implementation of rural development, coaching rural community, and empowering rural community. Instead, the last function, the empowerment of rural community, animating other functions through local value called mutual assistance (gotong royong). Mutual assistance reflects strong social capital, which build mutual trust between the village government and the villagers. The village government tried hard to maintain the value of mutual assistance, because without this value, the village government would not be able to implement rural development, coaching rural community, and run services of village administration. The strengths of this value make villagers still use traditional structure in local governance, with the retention of names such as lurah (headman), carik (village secretary), bekel (head of hamlet/dusun), and modin (head of public affairs), which attached with all the traditional rights like bengkok palungguh (the right of management given to the head of village and village officials), and bengkok pangarem-arem (the right of management of the head of village and village officials who had completed his tenure).

The conclusion of this study shows that the state are being ambiguous to the village. On the one hand, villages are granted autonomy, but on the other hand, villages are treated as part of decentralization, where the villages run certain functions provided by the central government, provincial, and district levels. Nevertheless, the village government was able to maintain the value of mutual assistance in implementing village administration. The village government’s ability in accommodating the interests of the village in the rural community and the interests of the central government, has implication in the organizational structure of village government, where there are at least two structures: one is to accomodate the functions of traditional government, and the second one is to accommodate the functions of modern government administration

Keywords— village governance, social capital, local wisdom, village government functions, organizational structure of village government

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Lokakarya

Pada hari ini, Rabu tanggal 15 Maret 2017, Pusat Kajian dan Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Aparatur 1 Lembaga Administrasi Negara (PKP2A 1 LAN) menyelenggarakan Lokakarya Peningkatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa di Gedung Serba Guna PKP2A I LAN Jl. Kiara Payung Jatinangor Kabupaten Sumedang. Tema dari lokakarya ini adalah Menyongsong Kemandirian Desa melalui Kolaborasi dan Sinergi Multi-Stakeholders.”

Lokakarya Peningkatan Kapasitas Pemerintahan di Daerah ini bertujuan untuk menginspirasi dan menstimulasi aparatur desa dalam melakukan pengelolaan desa secara strategis, inovatif, sinergis dan kolaboratif dalam implementasi UU No. 6/ 2014 sehingga desa dapat mandiri. Adapun narasumber yang hadir dalam lokakarya ini adalah:

  1. Kepala Lembaga Administrasi Negara, Dr. Adi Suryanto, M. Si yang akan menyampaikan sambutan kunci berjudul Menyongsong Kemandirian Desa Melalui Kolaborasi Dan Sinergi Multi-Stakeholders.
  2. Inovator E-Budgeting dari Dinas Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa Kabupaten Banyuwangi, DrSuyanto Waspo Tondo W, M.Si. yang akan menyampaikan tentang Penguatan Akuntabilitas, Sinergitas Pemerintah Desa dan Supradesa, Transparansi dan Partisipasi Masyarakat melalui E-Village Budgeting.
  3. Kepala Desa Majasari, Kabupaten Indramayu, Wartono, S. Pd, M. Si yang akan menyampaikan tentang Akuntabilitas Pengelolaan Keuangan dan Pembangunan Desa Di Desa Majasari.
  4. Direktur Fasilitasi Pengembangan Kapasitas Aparatur Desa, Dr. Drs. Andi Ony P., M.Si yang akan menyampaikan tentang Peningkatan Kapasitas Aparatur Pemerintahan Desa.
  5. Sekretaris Jenderal Kementerian Desa, Pembangunan Daerah Tertinggal, dan Transmigrasi, Anwar Sanusi, Ph. D yang akan menyampaikan tentang Kebijakan pengelolaan dana desa dalam mewujudkan inovasi desa yang berkembang dan mandiri dan inovatif.
  6. Pemerhati Desa, Dr. Sutoro Eko Yunanto yang akan menyampaikan tentang Rekonstitusi Desa: Kemandirian, Kerakyatan dan Kemakmuran.
  7. Deputi Inovasi Administrasi Negara, Lembaga Administrasi Negara, Dr. Tri Widodo Wahyu Utomo, MA yang akan menyampaikan tentang Model Inovasi Desa untuk Optimalisasi Dana Desa.

Adapun komposisi dari peserta yang berasal dari berbagai daerah ini adalah sebagai berikut :

  1. Para kepala desa dan perangkat desa di wilayah Kabupaten Sumedang, Kabupaten Kuningan, Kabupaten Garut dan Kabupaten Sukabumi.
  2. Camat di wilayah Kabupaten Sumedang, Kabupaten Kuningan, Kabupaten Garut dan Kabupaten Sukabumi.
  3. Kepala Dinas Pemberdayaan Masyarakat dan Desa di wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur dan Provinsi Bali.
  4. Kepala Bagian Organisasi di wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah.
  5. Kepala Bagian Pemerintahan di wilayah Provinsi Jawa Tengah.
  6. Akademisi pada universitas-universitas di wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan Jawa Timur.
  7. Widyaiswara dan peneliti di kementerian, lembaga non kementerian dan wilayah Provinsi Jawa Barat.                    Terselenggaranya Lokakarya Peningkatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa ini diharapkan mampu meningkatkan kapasitas aparatur pemerintah desa dalam menghadapi permasalahan, menciptakan ide-ide sinergis, strategis, inovatif dan kolaboratif untuk pengelolaan dana desa. Serta mendorong para stakeholders untuk berkolaborasi dan bahu membahu menjawab tantangan dari amanat UU Desa.
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Kewenangan Desa

Theme: Politics and Governmental Issues

Sub Theme: Governmental Systems and Practices

THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOCIAL POLITICS (ICSP)

Yogyakarta. 26-28 JANUARY 2016

A B S T R A C T

Village Authority Based on Indigenous  Right and Local Scale Authority:

Implications of Law No. 6/2014 toward Village Authority

Dr.  Kushandajani

Lecturer of Government Science, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia. Email: ningpemfisip_undip@yahoo.co.id

Law No 6/2014 constructs village authority into four forms in which  the most important forms are indigenous or original village authority and village based local authority. This form includes authorities in  village government functions, village development management and village  social empowerment. State legal construction is in practice already implemented by village government. This research is therefore design to provide a bridge between state  construction and village society construction in regard to these village authorities.  This research occupies qualitative type by using emic method and interviews with  key informants as well as  focused group discussion (FGD). Locations of research are in two villages, namely Pekuncen and Lerep.

Research results show that there is different conditions in implementing village authorities between Pekuncen and Lerep Villages. In Pekuncen Village, there is good synergy between indigenous rights and formal village authorities. This may happen since the people of Pekuncen village are coming from the same tribe, namely Bonokeling.  In Pekuncen village, indigenous or original village authorities are embedded with  the formal village authority functions so that  it has difficulty to distinguish between the two authorities. However, Pekuncen village can  not be mentioned as indigenous village (desa adat) because the government process has already implemented village law and regulation. Lerep Village is having deferent picture. Lerep is village that very fast in responding to the modernization and development of village authorities since there is a high demand for public services and developments. Lerep is very closed to the capital city of Semarang Regency, Ungaran, but this village is still formed as a village, not a city. The village life  still takes place in Lerep as early formed in the government village system.

This research concludes that village authorities can not be implemented in the same way with local government decentralization. This is because village original or indigenous rights have already came firstly prior to local government decentralization or autonomy. Importantly, indigenous or original village construction should be integrated in state construction (by law) in order to effectively operate village governance. The principal of law recognition is pivotal to be implemented, namely the central and local governments recognize the village original or indigenous village authorities in order to guarantee the village government management will be conducted well. This conclusion or research findings contribute to the science of government, particularly in the  importance of authority integration between indigenous and the formal authorities by law.

Keywords: village governance, village authority, village original rights, village  government functions, village based local authority.

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Kewenangan Desa

RINGKASAN PENELITIAN

IMPLIKASI UU NO. 6 TAHUN 2014 TENTANG DESA TERHADAP KEWENANGAN DESA

Penelitian Fundamental (Kemenristekdikti) Tahun 2015

Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi kehadiran UU No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Desa, yang merupakan UU ketiga yang mengatur secara khusus tentang Desa, selain UU No. 19 Tahun 1965 tentang Desapraja dan UU No. 5 Tahun 1979 tentang Pemerintahan Desa. Kehadiran UU baru tersebut akan memberikan implikasi bagi kewenangan dan penyelenggaraan pemerintahan desa ke depan. Sebagai langkah antisipasi penting dilakukan penelitian tentang kewenangan dan penyelenggaraan pemerintahan desa. Melalui identifikasi kewenangan yang dilaksanakan dan prediksi perkembangan kewenangan desa ke depan (tahun-1), maka akan mampu diantisipasi pula pola penyelenggaraan pemerintahan desa (tahun-2).

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Kisah Dosen-2

Selamat Datang Mahasiswa Baru 2015

Kisah Dosen (yang sudah setengah tua) – 2

Oleh: Kushandajani

Tulisan ini memang sangat terlambat……..karena setiap kali akan merampungkan tulisan ini ada saja hal yang mampu mengalihkan perhatian….namun…sekerap apapun pengalihan perhatian itu terjadi, pikiran terus saja kembali ke sini. Tulisan ini harus selesai,….sebagai penggenapan janjiku pada mahasiswa baruku…..

Dan inilah kisahnya……..

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Kisah Dosen-1

Kisah Dosen (setengah tua) – 1

Oleh: Kushandajani

 

Ada seorang dosen, sudah separuh umur, sudah bekerja lebih dari separuh umurnya, sedang melamun. Dia bernostalgia…..dulu rasa-rasanya begitu berbeda dengan sekarang…hadir di kelas bertemu dengan mahasiswa yang hanya sekelas tiap mata kuliah…. mengajar dengan sepenuh hati tanpa dikejar-kejar waktu harus masuk ke kelas berikutnya dengan perhitungan waktu yang sudah diformula sedemikian rupa. Dulu….dia bisa melakukan pengabdian pada masyarakat bersama-sama dengan jurusan atau program studi lain…hidup bersama dalam komunitas akademis yang terasa tanpa sekat.

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Penelitian 2013

 

KUSHANDAJANI, penelitian, Inovasi Manajemen Pemerintahan Daerah dalam Penanggulangan Kemiskinan, FISIP Undip, 2013. Lokasi Penelitian di Kota Pekalongan

ABSTRAKSI

Keyword: desentralisasi, manajemen pemerintahan,, kelembagaan

Dilatarbelakangi oleh keprihatinan yang mendalam terhadap fenomena kemiskinan di berbagai wilayah Indonesia, sementara di sisi lain penerapan desentralisasi sudah berlangsung cukup lama,   maka penting untuk melakukan kajian tentang bagaimana pemerintah daerah melakukan inovasi manajemen pemerintahan daerah guna mencari solusi masalah  kemiskinan di daerah masing-masing.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan Walikota Pekalongan dalam menggerakkan lembaga-lembaga yang ada di tingkat kelurahan atau Lima Pilar: Lurah, Badan Keswadayaan Masyarakat (BKM), Lembaga Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (LPM), Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (PKK), dan Karang Taruna untuk bersama-sama mengelola program penanggulangan kemiskinan memberi arti positip. Melalui penguatan kapasitas kelembagaan di tingkat kelurahan maka program-program inovasi dapat dikelola dengan baik, dan memacu partisipasi masyarakat makin tinggi. Semua langkah tersebut didukung melalui perencanaan dan pengangggaran integratif, yang memadukan perencanaan dan penganggaran pusat dengan Kota Pekalongan. Program-program inovasi yang dilahirkan dari kemampuan dan komitmen berbagai stakeholders Kota Pekalongan pada akhirnya mampu diaplikasikan dalam masyarakat seperti Replikasi Program Penangggulangan Kemiskinan Perkotaan (P2KP) Program Percepatan Pembangunan Keluarga Sejahtera Berbasis Masyarakat (P2KSBM) yang telah dipayungi dengan Peraturan Daerah (Perda) Kota Pekalongan No. 11 Tahun 2008, Program Daerah Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PDPM), dan Replikasi PLPBK yang fokus pada pembangunan lingkungan permukiman kelurahan.  Berbagai faktor pendukung keberhasilan Kota Pekalongan dalam melahirkan dan mengaplikasikan program-program inovatif antara lain adalah kepemimpinan walikota yang kuat dan bervisi jangka panjang, dukungan DPRD, dukungan SKPD, dan partisipasi masyarakat. Semua langkah diikat dengan Peraturan Daerah, sehingga semua pihak terikat untuk melaksanakan program sesuai dengan amanah peraturan daerah sebagai dasar hukum tertinggi di daerah.

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Rektor

Rektor-rektor Administratif

Itu adalah judul tulisan Rhenald Kasali di Kompas (27 Agustus 2013), yang begitu “menggelitik” bagi komunitas akademik kampus, termasuk saya. Kenapa begitu ? Karena kami memiliki kegelisahan yang sama terhadap fenomena yang terjadi di kampus-kampus, utamanya di PTN. Saat ini menurut Rhenald Kasali kampus-kampus  telah dipimpin rektor-rektor administratif yang miskin daya ungkit pengaruh. Disebut demikian karena para rektor sekarang lebih sibuk mengurus penerimaan mahasiswa baru, administrasi keuangan (dengan SPJ yang sering bikin pusing), kepegawaian, pengukuhan guru besar, kenaikan jabatan dosen….yang kesemuanya bersifat administratif dan rutin !! Lanjutkan membaca

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